Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Editing

… but were afraid to ask

Understanding the Types of Editing


Google “types of editing” and you’ll get dozens of responses with almost as many variations in definitions. There’s even disagreement about the correct spelling of copyediting. Is it “copyediting” or “copy editing”?  I’m team copyediting-is-one-word, so that’s how I’ll refer to it here. Here’s an explanation of the various types of manuscript editing services I provide.


Manuscript Assessment

A manuscript assessment is a broad, top-level look at your manuscript to help identify overarching structural issues and determine its readability. It is a highly recommended first step, particularly for first-time authors and those who have never had anyone read their manuscript in its entirety. An assessment will help identify your book’s strengths and weaknesses and typically:

• involves a complete manuscript readthrough
• includes recommendations on story, structure, and style
• checks for goal-motivation-conflict dynamic
• identifies common big picture issues with pacing, voice, and character POV (Point of View)
• may involve flagging grammar and word-choice errors
• includes a detailed editorial report addressing key developmental areas

After the assessment is returned to the author, they incorporate the editor’s suggestions into their manuscript.

Typical turnaround time: 2-3 weeks


Substantive/Developmental Editing

Substantive or developmental editing identifies and improves upon key structural elements of a manuscript. Unlike an assessment, which does not involve heavy document markups or editing, a substantive edit may involve significant markups and deep restructuring of story elements. Substantive editing:

• pays special attention to adherence to story structure and character development
• involves rewriting, rephrasing, and reorganizing the manuscript at the chapter, scene, and paragraph-level
• addresses and corrects common story issues such as head hopping, pacing, conflict, and plot inconsistencies
• prepares the manuscript for the final revision process

After a substantive edit, the author receives a marked-up manuscript along with a detailed editorial report. The edit may include rewrites, but the author makes the majority of the rewrites.

Typical turnaround time: 4-6 weeks


Line/Style Editing

Style edits, sometimes called line edits, are undertaken by editors with an eye for cadence. This type of editing focuses on correcting issues at the paragraph and sentence level and should be done on a manuscript that already has a strong plot, story, and structure. A style edit improves a manuscript’s overall clarity and:

• identifies, corrects, and makes recommendations for addressing issues at the paragraph and sentence level
• identifies and corrects awkward phrasing
• improves dialogue
• highlights overused words and phrases and suggests alternatives
• helps the writer tweak “show don’t tell”
• does not involve restructuring the manuscript or plot

Style edits should be done after the writer has a cohesive plot and story, but before they enter the copyediting and proofreading stages of their work. After a style edit, the author may receive a document with significant markups, comments, insertions, and deletions. The editor may make a large number of edits, but the author should expect to make additional edits and rewrites based on the editor’s suggestions and recommendations. An editorial letter and/or style sheet may be included with this edit.

Typical turnaround time: 2-4 weeks


Copyediting (light to medium)

Copyediting has become somewhat of a catch-all term for all editing. But copyediting typically only addresses grammar and usage issues, spelling and punctuation errors, and word choice. Copyediting addresses a manuscript’s correctness. Why is the character named Joseph in chapter one suddenly being called John in chapter eight? Why does Lara have brown eyes in the prologue, but blue eyes in the final scene? Copyediting is less focused on rhythm and flow and more on ensuring accuracy. It:

• involves making corrections at the sentence level
• checks for consistency issues with timelines, plot, and character
• addresses adherence to the Chicago Manual of Style and the author’s “house” style
• may result in significant document markups
• prepares the manuscript for proofreading and publication

After copyediting, the author receives a document with significant markups. The author is responsible for either accepting or rejecting the editor’s changes and recommendations.

Typical turnaround time: 2-3 weeks



The final phase of the manuscript editing process is about double-checking the manuscript, not assessing or improving style or subject matter. Proofreading involves changes at the word-level, not at the sentence or paragraph level. Proofreaders check for typos, spelling, and layout issues. They also should verify links in electronic documents and perform document cleanups that standardize the manuscript’s format. Proofreaders:

• double check, they don’t assess or improve on story or plot
• find and fix grammar, spelling errors, layout, and format issues
• make corrections at the word level, not at the sentence, paragraph, or chapter level

While a proofreader checks for correctness, the author should always conduct their own final readthrough of a manuscript before submitting or publishing.

Typical turnaround time: 1-2 weeks